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Introducing the Tesla transformer, N.

Tesla transformer consists of two main parts:
1. generating portion consisting of a high-voltage power supply storage capacitor C1, and the spark coil connection L1; oscillation frequency depends on the supply voltage, the capacitor C1, which characterizes the time of discharge, as well as gap between the electrodes of a spark gap;
2. resonant inductor L2, grounding and scope.
If you look at the drawing of the transformer closer, we see the well-known scheme of successive oscillatory circuit consisting of inductor L2 with an open capacitance formed between the sphere and the earth. In other words, before us an open oscillating circuit JC Maxwell. And now it's time to turn to the classical theory of the operating principle of the above open oscillatory circuit.
As is known, is a oscillation circuit coil (one coil) and capacitor two, next placed metal plates. If the file in the gap circuit inductance a variable voltage from the generator (see 2a), the coil of an alternating current will flow, which creates a magnetic field around the conductor. All of the above can confirm the magnetic indicator in the form of coil loaded with light. In order to get an open oscillatory circuit, it is only necessary to push the plates of the capacitor.

What if this happens? The indicator lamp stays on the magnetic field. To better understand the process, look at Fig. 2a. In a spiral path of the conduction current flows, which is around a magnetic field H, and between the plates of the capacitor - it is equal to the so-called displacement current. Despite the fact that between the plates of the capacitor is no conduction current, experience shows that the bias current creates a magnetic field is the same as the conduction current. The first thought of this great English physicist James C. Maxwell.
In the 60 years of the XIX-th century, formulating a system of equations for the description of electromagnetic phenomena, Maxwell was faced with the fact that the equation for the magnetic field of direct current and the equation of conservation of electric charge variable fields (equation continuity) are incompatible. In order to eliminate the contradiction, a scientist, not having any of the experimental data postulated that the magnetic field is generated not only the movement of charges, but also change the electric field, similar to the electric field is generated, and charges and changes in the magnetic field. The quantity, namely the electric induction, which he added to the conduction current density, Maxwell called the displacement current. In electromagnetic induction appeared magnetoelectric analogue, and the field equations have found a remarkable symmetry. Thus, conceptually opened one of the fundamental laws of nature, a consequence of which was the existence of electromagnetic waves. Later G. Hertz, based on this theory, proved that the electromagnetic field emitted by an electric vibrator, well field, radiated capacitive transducer.

So, check again, what happens when a closed oscillatory circuit becomes open. And also how you can detect the electric field E. To do this, close to the oscillating circuit will place an indicator of the electric field, in this case, a vibrator, a gap which the lamp filament. Well, it is not yet lit. Gradually reveal the path and see that the indicator lamp lights up an electric field (see Fig. 2b). The electric field is no longer centered between the plates of the capacitor, its field lines go from one plate to another through the open space. Experience proves the assertion of James Clerk Maxwell that the capacitive transducer generates an electromagnetic wave. Nikola Tesla drew attention to this fact. And further suggested that by not large emitters, you can create a very efficient device for the emission of electromagnetic waves. So was born N. Tesla resonant transformer. We verify this by experiment, which re-consider the appointment of parts of the transformer.
Thus, the scope and grounding plates act as an open capacitor. The geometrical dimensions of the scope and specifications inductor determine the frequency of series resonance, which should coincide with the frequency of generation discharger.
In other words, the series resonance mode allows Tesla transformer to achieve such values of stresses that appear on the surface of the sphere of the coronary level, and even lightning. The trick lies in the fact that the transformation ratio of the resonant transformer turns ratio above the coil L1/L2 and significantly higher than in transformers ferroserdechnikami.
Here, the inductance L2, scope and open ground are a resonant tank circuit. That is why the Tesla transformer is called resonance.
Consider the work of Tesla transformer as a series RLC circuit.
This circuit should be seen as a regular LC-element - in Fig. 1a.b, as shown in Fig. 2a, which are connected in series inductor L, capacitor C and the open resistance of the medium Rsr. Phase angle in a series RLC circuit between the voltage and current is zero (= 0) if = XL - Xc, ie changes in current and voltage it happen phase. This phenomenon is called resonance voltages (serial resonance). It should be noted that with decreasing frequency of the resonance, the current in the circuit decreases and the resonance current is capacitive in nature. With further detuning circuit and the decrease in current to 0.707, its phase is shifted by 45 degrees. When circuit detuning frequency up to it becomes inductive. This phenomenon is often used in the phase inverter.
If we consider the circuit shown in Fig. 3, we can provide simple calculations, which show that the voltage on the emitter plates calculated from the Q of the circuit Q, which can realistically be in the range of 20-50 and a lot higher.
Where bandwidth is determined by the quality factor of the circuit -
the voltage on the plates of a radiator fits the following formula:
U2= Q * U1.

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