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The vortex tube, Ranque Hilsch.

In 1931, Joseph opened Rankom vortex effect the separation of gases. The engineer received a patent for a device that he called the "vortex tube". According to his experiments, corkscrew flow of compressed gas are separated in a vortex tube to the aforesaid two streams: cold and hot. The effect of temperature separation in the apparatus was 110 C. Alas, the results raised doubts about the accuracy of measurement of temperature and were briefly forgotten. The experimental data of German scientist R.Hilsha again drew attention to a vortex apparatus, and therefore, since 1946, has again become a vortex effect the object of research.
Outwardly simple, the effect of the vortex is actually encompasses a complex gas-dynamic process occurring in dimensional turbulent flow of a viscous compressible gas. Perhaps this explains the failure of many attempts to find analytical solution. Despite the fact that so far there is no complete theoretical description of processes in the vortex tube, a combination of empirical methods, at times, achieved impressive results. We describe the design, in which temperature of the cold stream reaches -200 C at the entrance room temperature.
Due to its characteristics, the vortex effect has practical application in various fields of engineering and production. In many enterprises in our country, in particular, are working successfully vortex refrigerators, thermostats, and vacuum pumps.
The vortex tube is a smooth cylindrical tube fitted with a throttle aperture with an axial hole snail. Compressed gas is fed into the vortex tube at high speed.

When the leak of gas through a nozzle formed an intense circular flow, layers near the axis of which is cooled and discharged through the aperture in the form of cold flow, and peripheral layers are heated and the flow through the orifice in the form of hot.
Vortex devices are also used as dryers, separators, the elements of instrumentation.
Schematic design of the vortex tube.
At the entrance to the pipe specified speed, temperature and direction of the incoming flow. At the outputs - the pressure is usually on the diaphragm and the choke - the same pressure. On the walls of the vortex tube is given by adhesion - all components of the velocity vector is zero. For the adiabatic temperature is determined by boundary conditions.
The difficulties of studying the processes taking place in vortex apparatus, lies in the fact that the hydrodynamics and heat transfer to describe their complex system of nonlinear partial differential equations. The situation is burdened by the fact that under consideration for a three-dimensional and turbulent. In real vortex tubes large pressure drop, resulting in significant are the effects of compressibility. That is why the numerical study is necessary to use the full Navier-Stokes equations. In solving the same problem with allowance for the effects of thermal conductivity and the compressibility of the previously used system of equations of heat transfer and motion of a compressible medium.
Established experimentally that the characteristics of the vortex tube is influenced by such quantities as the diameter of the aperture, the length and geometry of the vortex zone of the pipe, square cross-section of the nozzle, the temperature and pressure of the incoming compressed gas.

On the characteristics of tubes with different diameters are not affected by the absolute values of aperture diameter, and their relationship to the diameter of the vortex tube.
With the help of experiments proved that to obtain optimum performance is a definite correlation between the diameter vortex tube and the cross-sectional area of nozzle entrance.
An important parameter is the shape of the nozzle entrance. Study and selection of the most rational form of the nozzle entrance is devoted to large number of papers. With the nozzle entrance, in fact, begins the process in a vortex tube, so the shape and geometry of the nozzle nozzle entrance to a large extent determine its work. Due to practical research we know that the most effective smooth entry of gas in the spiral vortex tube. Spiral input gas can be carried out as in the round, and at rectangular nozzles, but the last are more rational.
While maintaining a constant pressure at the exit aperture of the diaphragm, the pressure supplied to the nozzle, is significant role in the resulting effect. With increasing pressure at the entrance to the cooling effect increases. Typical values of the differential pressure satisfy.
Due to the rapid growth of productivity of computer systems has become possible to analyze and calculate the hydrodynamic processes, even on personal computers.
Computational fluid dynamics is becoming one of the components of the design process for companies that develop high-tech equipment. This is especially true of such industries as automotive, aerospace, energy, oil and gas, production of heat exchange equipment, biomedical applications, ventilation and air conditioning systems, shipbuilding.

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